Rat Facts, Identification and Control
Scientific Name: Rattus
Size: Rats are medium sized rodents that seldom weigh over a pound.
Color: Most commonly brownish gray, but can be black
Other characteristics: Rats have distinctive hairless tails that can measure up to a few inches long.
Behavior and Diet
Rats are opportunistic omnivores. They'll eat whatever they can find wherever they can find it, though they tend to prefer grains, fruits, vegetables, seeds, and nuts.
A few other interesting facts about rats:
Rats instinctively avoid certain tastes and odors. However, no rat repellent has been discovered that eliminates an infestation.
Because rats have poor eyesight, they rely primarily on their sense of smell and taste to discern their surroundings.
Adult rats can squeeze through holes no bigger than a quarter (that's how they get into your building even though you can't find their entrances!)
Rats transmit a variety of diseases to humans and other animals (bacterial, protozoan and viral), parasites (worms) and ectoparasites (fleas, lice and mites).
Rats are agile vertical climbers and excellent swimmers. Trying to "flood" a rat infestation to kill rats would be like throwing them a free pool party!
Signs of Rat Infestation
The most common signs of rat infestations include droppings around food containers, scratching, rustling noises in walls and attics, nests behind large objects moved, dark smudge marks on walls, rafters and baseboards caused by rats marking their territory with their fur, and evidence of teeth marks on all accessible surfaces.
Treatment and Prevention
Rodents like living in the same environments humans do, but there are ways to keep them out. Keep rubbish bins away from your entrance and keep them tightly closed, consistently clean the building both inside and out, and make sure that stacked outdoor materials are at least 15 feet from the home or building to prevent movement from outdoor nests to indoor ones.
If, despite your best efforts, you have an infestation, your best bet is to call professionals to take care of your problem. However, you can make an attempt at traps or chemical control.
Like mice, rats remain unaffected by ultrasonic devices that are supposed to "drive away" rodents by frightening them and rat poison only kills rats that happen to find it and eat enough to kill them - so keep that in mind!